Translation terms for beginners

Here is the explanation of some key translation terms so that you can come across as a connoisseur when ordering a translation and avoid being caught off guard by any question asked.

1. Source and target language/language pair

The terms source language and target language are indispensable in the translation profession. When ordering a translation, the project manager will undoubtedly ask you which language your document is in and to which language you would like it translated. The source language is the language in which your text is written, while the target language is the language into which you would like your text translated. The combination of both is called a language pair, sometimes colloquially referred to as a language combination.

2. Translation

A translation means transferring a popular, scientific or literary text from one language to another, which is a task carried out by a suitably qualified translator. The purpose of translation is to transfer the information into the target language while taking into account the form, style and meaning of the original.

3. Translation page

A translation page is a unit used to calculate the price for the prepared translation. It usually consists of 250 words or 1500 characters without spaces in the target language. In case you were wondering why the target language is used as the basis, the answer is very simple. When translating into a foreign language, deviations in the amount of text arise rather quickly. Since translators and translation companies are proficient in anticipating such deviations, they warn customers that the final price for the translation might be higher. If your text is extensive, feel free to enquire about a discount.

4. Translator

A translator is a linguist who specialises in translating in one or several language pairs and who has a suitable university degree. Many people working as translators have not completed an adequate study programme, but have learned translation through practical work and experience, and have a great sense for learning languages. Usually, translators decide to translate from the language they learned in the course of their education pursuits into their native language, i.e. the language they grew up using. Such translators are called native speakers.

5. Localisation

Localisation means adapting a text to suit the culture and linguistics of a certain environment and with a certain purpose.
It is a generally known fact that the greater part of Latin America communicates in Spanish, but their Spanish is not identical to the Spanish spoken in Europe, differing in style and terminology. In order to bring the content of a text originating from Spain as close as possible to the target audience in Latin America, the text needs to be localised.

6. Proofreading

Proofreading is a professional skill comprised of reviewing and, if necessary, correcting and editing a text. Preparing a translation does not necessarily mean the translated text will be adequate in terms of style and grammar. Since two heads are better than one, it is highly recommendable for a text to be proofread before the customer uses it. Translation companies usually include the review and proofreading in the translation service as they have suitably qualified linguistic teams, which work together and solve language-related problems that arise in the course of projects. This is a level of service that individual translators are usually unable to provide, which is why this aspect is well-worth checking before placing an order.

7. Court-sworn translations

A court-sworn translation is an official document which can be used in various offices either in one’s native country or abroad. It is always stamped and bound by a special string with the original document or its certified or ordinary copy. Such documents are fitted with interpreter’s signed statement, confirming and guaranteeing that the original is identical to the translation. Court-sworn translations can only be done by translators who have sworn before the Minister of Justice and are called court-sworn interpreters.

8. Court-sworn interpreters

Court-sworn interpreters are official translators/interpreters, who participate in legal proceedings. Such translators must have a thorough command of the legal terminology, attend the prescribed course and pass the examination, and are sworn in before the Minister of Justice. Both court experts and court-sworn interpreters provide their expertise in something that is generally not available at courts or offices, i.e. the knowledge of foreign languages. Court-sworn interpreters are legally liable for their translations.

9. CAT tools

CAT tools are computer-assisted translation tools, which enable faster and more effective work as they “memorise” every word and every sentence a translator translates, while also highlighting inconsistencies and enabling the creation of special terminology databases. Programmes such as Trados and MemoQ should not be equated with machine translation tools such as Google Translate since CAT tools are not used for machine translation; they merely assist translators in their work.
Machine translation tools keep a database of all past translations. Once an already translated segment appears in a text (e.g. part of an international treaty or memorandum), the tool displays the already translated text. This makes preparing a translation not only more affordable, but also faster. Since a machine translation tool performs no functions that are usually available in CAT tools, and since it lacks skills possessed by a translator, it frequently provides a translation of questionable quality, especially when it does not have a whole string of translated sentences at the ready and forms them by itself.

10. Desktop publishing (DTP)

Customers often want to order a translation of documents such as presentation brochures and catalogues which were created by means of special software tools for design (e.g. InDesign) and can therefore not be organised by using a usual word processor.
Since the design aspect of such a document is rather time-consuming, the customers, of course, want to receive the translated text in the original format and save some time. When this is the case, we recommend you ask your translator or translation company whether they can provide desktop publishing services and prepare your document for printing.

Free New Year greeting card translations

In December, Translat offers to corporate clients FREE TRANSLATIONS of Christmas and New Year greeting cards from English into Slovene and/or vice versa (1/2 standard page) and a 30% discount for Christmas and New Year card translations in other language pairs. The offer stands by the end of 2016.

Brezplačen prevod novoletnih čestitk

Translat v decembru svojim poslovnim strankam ponuja BREZPLAČEN PREVOD novoletnih čestitk iz slovenščine v angleščino v obsegu do 1/2 avtorske strani ter 30-odstotni popust na prevode novoletnih čestitk v vse ostale jezike. Ponudba velja do konca leta 2016.

Prevajalski termini za začetnike

Da se boste pri naročilu prevoda lahko predstavili kot dobri poznavalci in vas nobeno vprašanje ne bo ujelo nepripravljenih, smo pripravili razlago ključnih prevajalskih terminov.

1. Izvirni in ciljni jezik/jezikovni par

Izvirni jezik in ciljni jezik sta nepogrešljiva izraza v prevajalskem poklicu. Ob naročilu prevoda vas bo projektni vodja gotovo vprašal, v katerem jeziku je vaš dokument in v kateri jezik ga želite prevesti. Izvirni jezik je torej tisti, v katerem je vaše besedilo napisano, ciljni pa je jezik, v katerega želite vaše besedilo prevesti. Skupku slednjega pravimo jezikovni par, ki ga včasih pogovorno imenujemo tudi »jezikovna kombinacija«.

2. Prevod

Prevod pomeni prenos poljudnega, znanstvenega ali literarnega besedila iz enega jezika v drugega. To delo opravi ustrezno usposobljen prevajalec. Namen prevoda je prenos sporočilnosti v ciljni jezik ob upoštevanju vseh oblikovnih, slogovnih in pomenskih lastnosti izvirnika.

3. Avtorska stran

Avtorska stran je enota, s katero obračunamo ceno pripravljenega prevoda. Avtorska stran praviloma šteje 250 besed ali 1500 znakov brez presledkov, in sicer v ciljnem jeziku. Če se sprašujete, zakaj ravno v ciljnem, je odgovor povsem preprost. Pri prevajanju v tuj jezik lahko hitro pride do odstopanj v obsegu besedila. Prevajalci in prevajalska podjetja znajo ta odstopanja predvideti vnaprej, zato vas s tem opozorijo, da utegne biti končna cena prevoda višja. Če imate besedila več, lahko poprosite za popust na obseg.

4. Prevajalec

Prevajalec je jezikoslovec, ki se je specializiral za prevajanje v enem ali več jezikovnih parov ter zaključil ustrezen študij. Včasih so prevajalci ljudje, ki niso zaključili študija v stroki, vendar so se prevajanja priučili s praktičnim delom in izkušnjami, imajo pa tudi zelo izpiljen posluh za jezik. Prevajalci se najpogosteje odločijo za prevajanje iz jezika, ki so ga usvojili v času izobraževanja, v svoj materni jezik, torej jezik, s katerim so odraščali. Takšnim prevajalcem pravilno pravimo rojeni govorci, v zadnjem času pa se vse pogosteje uveljavlja tudi termin »naravni govorci«, ki sicer ni povsem ustrezen in je dobesedno povzet po angleškem izrazu »native speakers«.

5. Lokalizacija

Lokalizacija je kulturološka in jezikovna prilagoditev besedila nekemu okolju z določenim namenom.

Vsi vemo, da se v večjem delu Latinske Amerike sporazumevajo v španskem jeziku, ki  ni povsem enak španščini, ki jo govorijo Evropejci. Od slednje se namreč razlikuje v slogu in terminologiji. Da bi denimo vsebino besedila, ki izvira iz Španije, čim bolj približali ciljnim bralcem v Latinski Ameriki, moramo besedilo lokalizirati.

6. Lektoriranje

Lektoriranje velja za strokovno veščino, ki obsega pregledovanje in po potrebi popravljanje in prilagajanje besedila. Priprava prevoda ne zagotavlja nujno tudi slogovne in slovnične ustreznosti besedila. Po načelu več glav več ve je tako priporočljivo besedilo pred uporabo lektorsko pregledati. Prevajalska podjetja po navadi v storitev prevoda vključijo tudi pregled in lekturo, saj imajo na voljo ustrezno usposobljene jezikoslovne ekipe, ki delajo skupaj in rešujejo jezikovne zagate pri projektih. To je nekaj, kar posamezni prevajalci težko ponudijo, zato se je pri naročilu priporočljivo o tem pozanimati.

7. Sodno overjeni prevodi

Sodno overjeni prevod je uradni dokument, ki ga je mogoče uporabljati na uradih doma in po svetu. Ta je vselej žigosan, z izvirnikom oziroma overjeno ali navadno kopijo pa je povezan z vrvico. Takemu dokumenti priložimo tudi podpisano izjavo tolmača, s katero ta potrjuje in jamči za istovetnost izvirnika s prevodom. Sodno overjeni prevod lahko pripravi le prevajalec, ki je zaprisežen pri Ministrstvu za pravosodje. Pravimo mu sodni tolmač.

8. Sodni tolmač

Sodni tolmač imenujemo uradnega prevajalca ali tolmača, ki deluje v pravnih postopkih. Tak prevajalec mora poznati pravno terminologijo, opraviti ustrezne tečaje in izpite ter zapriseči na Ministrstvu za pravosodje. Tako kot sodni izvedenci tudi sodni tolmači posredujejo strokovno znanje o nečem, s čimer sodišča in uradi praviloma ne razpolagajo – to je znanje tujega jezika. Sodni tolmač je za svoje prevode pravno odgovoren.

9. Prevajalska orodja

Prevajalska orodja so računalniški programi, ki omogočajo hitrejše in učinkovitejše delo, saj si »zapomnijo« vsako besedo in vsak stavek, ki ga prevajalec prevede, opozarjajo pa tudi na nedoslednosti in omogočajo izdelavo posebnih terminoloških zbirk. Programov, kot sta Trados in MemoQ, ne gre enačiti s strojnimi prevajalniki, kot je na primer Google Translate, saj prevajalska orodja ne prevajajo strojno, temveč z njihovo pomočjo prevajajo prevajalci.

Strojni prevajalniki hranijo zbirko že opravljenih prevodov. Ko se v besedilu pojavi del, ki je bil že preveden (npr. meddržavne pogodbe ali sporazumi), vam tak prevajalnik ponudi vnaprej prevedeno besedilo. Priprava prevoda s tem ni samo cenejša, marveč tudi hitrejša. Ker pa strojni prevajalnik ne opravlja tudi drugih funkcij, ki jih ponujajo prevajalska orodja, in ker nima jezikovnega znanja, ki ga premore prevajalec, nemalokrat ponudi prevod, katerega kakovost je lahko zelo vprašljiva, posebno takrat, ko nima na voljo celega niza vnaprej prevedenih stavkov in zato stavke tvori kar sam.

10. Namizno založništvo (DTP)

Pogosto se zgodi, da želimo v prevajanje poslati dokumente, kot so denimo predstavitvene brošure ali katalogi, ki so bili ustvarjeni z uporabo posebnih programskih orodij za oblikovanje, kakršen je recimo InDesign, in jih zato ni mogoče urejati z običajnimi urejevalniki besedil.

Ker ste oblikovni plati vašega dokumenta namenili veliko časa, si gotovo želite prevedeno besedilo prejeti v izvirnem formatu ter s tem prihraniti nekaj časa. Ob naročilu prevoda tako povprašajte prevajalca ali prevajalsko podjetje, ali ponuja tudi možnost namiznega založništva ter s tem pripravo dokumenta za tisk.

Mednarodni dan prevajalcev / International Translation Day

Na zadnji septembrski dan obeležujemo mednarodni dan prevajalcev, ki je posvečen vsem prevajalcem ter spominu na svetega Hieronima, ustvarjalca Vulgate – prevoda Svetega pisma v latinščino. Ob tej priložnosti čestitamo prevajalcem za požrtvovalno delo.

The last day of September marks the International Translation Day. Dedicated to all translators and their work, it is also the day dedicated to Saint Jerome, author of the first translation of the Bible into Latin – the Vulgate. On this occasion, we would like to congratulate translators for their good work and wish them plenty of success and creative energy in the future as well.

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The European Language Day

Today is the European Language Day; we salute everyone working in the language industry and thank you for your contributions to the society.

Evropski dan jezikov

Danes praznujemo Evropski dan jezikov. Vsem, ki se kakorkoli ukvarjate z jeziki, želimo še naprej veliko uspehov pri vaših prizadevanjih v dobrobit cele družbe.

How did languages develop?

One does not need to dig deep into the past to understand how special can a language be. Let us have a look at the etymology and the source of the Slovenian word “Nemec” (meaning “a German”), which the Slavs used in the past to describe the Germanic nation. According to some theories, the Slavs would call Germanic peoples by this denomination because they were unable to communicate with them due to the language barrier. For them, the Germanic tribes were “mute” – in Slovenian, “nem” is the word for someone who does not speak. While history books offer many more similar examples, we focused more on the origin of languages, so we looked for answers to some of the most frequently asked questions in this field.

How did the language develop?

All social animals, from bees to whales and monkeys, communicate among each other. However, humans were the only ones who have developed a language that is far more than mere sequels of previously structured signals. Today, it is impossible to construe how exactly did the language evolve, but it is generally considered that a language could not have just “sprung up” but has rather developed from earlier sub-linguistic systems. Millions of years ago, our ancestors must have already communicated with each other, albeit with much more limited vocabulary and simpler grammar rules than the ones we have today.

How old is the language?

This question is a continuing source of many a heated discussion among linguists. There is a common consensus established that the humans developed the complete linguistic skills around 100,000 BC. This was also the time when a modern human emerged, who had a fully developed skull and the vocal tract, which shows that people at that time were able to produce sounds required by modern languages.

What is the oldest form of written language?

With regard to the world’s oldest written language, the answer to this question is definitely the Sumerian as well as the language of the ancient Egypt, as both have developed written encrypting systems based on pictograms and hieroglyphs respectively, which emerged as early as 3200 BC.

Which is the oldest spoken language?

Around 3200 BC, many spoken languages existed besides the written ones. However, they did not survive since they were not recorded in writing. Today, the Basque language is considered to be the oldest European tongue and is also categorised among the oldest languages in the world, besides Farsi, Hebrew, Hindu and some other languages.

Which is the oldest written form of language that is still in use today?

The Sumerian pictograms and Egyptian hieroglyphs are long extinct. Today, the Chinese and Greek are considered the oldest written languages still in use as there is evidence to support the theory that they both emerged around 1500 BC.

What about the Slovenian language?

Slovenian is a South Slavic language and one of the rare Indo-European languages that has preserved the dual. Today, the language uses the Latin script, more specifically a Slovenian version of Gaj’s Latin alphabet. The Slovene language is spoken by 2,500,000 people, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. The Friesing manuscripts dating back to around 1000 AD are the oldest preserved written documents in Slovenian, showing the characteristics of this language. Primož Trubar is considered the consolidator of the Slovene language, having written the first two books in Slovenian around the year 1550, i.e. the Cathecismus and Abecedarium.

Kako je nastal jezik?

Ni se nam treba ozreti daleč, da bi doumeli, kako poseben je v resnici jezik. Poglejmo samo njegovo etimologijo in izvor besede »Nemec«, s katero so slovanski narodi svoj čas skušali poimenovati svoje zahodne sosede. Po nekaterih razlagah so Slovani Germanom nadeli ime Nemci zato, ker se z njimi niso mogli sporazumevati. Po njihovem so bili torej Nemci »nemi ljudje«. Podobnih primerov je v zgodovinskih knjigah še veliko, a tokrat nas bolj kot izvori besed zanima, kako je nastal sam jezik, zato smo poiskali odgovore na nekaj najpogostejših vprašanj o jeziku.

Kako je nastajal jezik?

Vse družabne živali se med seboj sporazumevajo, od čebel in mravelj do kitov in opic. A samo ljudje smo razvili jezik, ki je veliko več kot niz predhodno razporejenih signalov. Kako se je ta razvijal, je danes takorekoč nemogoče natančno določiti, a na splošno velja, da jezik ni mogel vznikniti kar na lepem, temveč da izhaja iz zgodnejših predjezikovnih sistemov. Tako so se naši predniki gotovo sporazumevali že pred milijoni let, vendar z ožjim besednjakom in enostavnejšimi slovničnimi pravili, kot smo jih vajeni danes.

Kako star je v resnici jezik?

Starost jezika še vedno povzroča burne razprave lingvistov. Obstaja širše prepričanje, da smo ljudje popolne jezikovne sposobnosti razvili okoli 100.000 let p. n. š. To je tudi čas, ko se pojavi moderen človek z razvito lobanjo standardne oblike in vokalnim traktom, ki je pokazal, da je bil človek takrat že sposoben ustvariti zvoke, ki jih zahtevajo moderni jeziki.

Katera je najstarejša oblika pisanega jezika?

Če govorimo o najstarejšem pisanem jeziku, sta odgovora na to vprašanje gotovo sumerščina in jezik starih Egipčanov, saj sta oba razvila pisne sisteme, zasnovane na piktogramih (osnovni gradniki slikovne pisave) oziroma hieroglifih, ki so se pojavili že 3200 let p. n. š.

Kateri je najstarejši govorjeni jezik?

Približno 3200 let p. n. š. je poleg zapisanih obstajalo tudi veliko govorjenih jezikov, ki pa žal niso imeli te sreče, da bi bili kodificirani. Tako danes velja, da je najstarejši govorjeni jezik v Evropi baskovščina.

Katera je najstarejša pisana oblika jezika, ki je še danes v uporabi?

Sumerijski in egipčanski hieroglifi so že zdavnaj izumrli. Tako sta kitajski in grški jezik obravnavana kot najstarejša jezika, ki sta še vedno v uporabi. Obstajajo dokazi, da sta se oba  pojavila okoli 1500 let p. n. š.

Kaj pa slovenščina?

Slovenščina je južnoslovanski jezik in eden redkih indoevropskih jezikov, ki je ohranil dvojino. Za zapisovanje slovenskega jezika se danes uporablja gajica, ki je različica latinične pisave. Slovenščino skupaj govori 2.500.000 govorcev, od katerih jih večina živi v Sloveniji. Najstarejši ohranjeni zapisi, ki kažejo značilnosti slovenskega jezika, so Brižinski spomeniki, ki so nastali okoli leta 1000. Začetnik slovenskega jezika je protestantski pisatelj Primož Trubar, ki je leta 1550 napisal prvi slovenski knjigi, Abecednik in Katekizem.

Translat odslej d.o.o./We are now Translat, d.o.o. (Translat, ltd.)

Z velikim veseljem vam sporočamo, da smo v Translatu obrnili nov list in spremenili ime in status podjetja, ki se zdaj glasi Translat, prevajanje in storitve, d.o.o. Čeprav gre zgolj za spremembo naziva podjetja, to razumemo kot dokaz uspešne zgodbe, ki jo pišemo skupaj z vami. V zadnjih nekaj letih smo postali člani prevajalskih združenj ELIA in EUATC, pridobili smo nove partnerje v zahodni in vzhodni Evropi, nadgradili storitve ter delovne procese, se preselili v nove prostore in za povrhu oblikovali novo in še močnejšo ekipo prevajalcev. Verjamemo, da se bo vse to odražalo tudi v našem nadaljnjem delu.

Veselimo se že sodelovanja z vami!

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It is our pleasure to inform you that Translat has turned a new leaf by changing the company legal status from sole proprietorship to a limited liability company, and also its name, which now reads Translat, prevajanje in storitve, d.o.o. Although a mere change in the company name, we perceive it as a proof of success story we have been writing all these years together with you. Over the last few years, we have become a member of the European Language Industry Association (ELIA) and European Union of Association of Translation Companies (EUATC), acquired new partners from West and East Europe, improved our services and working processes, moved to a new office and set up a strong team of highly qualified translators. We believe that all this will continue to reflect in our work, just as it has so far.

We look forward to our future cooperation.

Copyright © 2016 Translat blog – Prevajanje.